Electrical Instrumentation

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Self regulating control systems are among us in our day-to-day life

Self regulating control systems are among us in our day-to-day life

Do you know you can find many self regulating control systems in our day to day life?


A self regulating control is a system that compares a measured value of a process with a desired set value (called set point) and processes the resulting error signal to change some input to the process, in such a way that the process stays at its set point despite disturbances.

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There are only 10 types of people in the world: those who understand binary, and those who don't.

There are only 10 types of people in the world: those who understand binary, and those who don't.

 

 

If you don’t understand the joke: it’s time to enrol in our cert 4 in Electrical Instrumentation…

In mathematics and digital electronics, the binary numeral system, or base-2 numeral system, represents numeric values using two different symbols: typically 0 and 1. More specifically, the usual base-2 system is a positional notation with a radix of 2. Because of its straightforward implementation in digital electronic circuitry using logic gates, the binary system is used internally by almost all modern computers and computer-based devices such as mobile phones.

 

So, in binary: 0 is 00, 1 is 01, 2 is 10, 3 is 11, 4 is 100…

 

For the ones that knew this one, how about:

"Why does Halloween equal Christmas?" 


 

Answer: Because OCT (octal) 31 = DEC (decimal) 25 to know more about OCTAL (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Octal

You can learn more about how binary and binary options works through tradersbible.com where you can learn how binary options works from Australia

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Can you spot the difference between balancing a broom and a space rocket?

Can you spot the difference between balancing a broom and a space rocket?

Simple: the control principle behind the two is the same, and they both can be viewed as the inverted pendulum problem.

 

An inverted pendulum is a pendulum which has its centre of mass above its pivot point.  It is often implemented with the pivot piont mounted on a cart that can move horizontally and may be called a cart and pole. Balancing is also used in casinos in Australia as explained in this Australian online casino site you have a look at how this works in land based Australian online casinos.  Whereas a normal pendulum is stable when hanging downwards, and inverted pendulum is inherently unstable, and must be actively balanced in order to remain upright.  Sam things happens with both the rocket and the broom!

 

If you want to learn more about stability, control and in particular the control of industrial processes enrol in our Diploma of Electrical & Instrumentation as soon as you can.

 

 

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Virus on PLC's?

Virus on PLC's?

 

Yes, they do already exist…

 

Stuxnet is a virus discovered in June 2010. It was designed to attack Siemens Step7 software running on a Windows operating system. Not the PLC model we use in our class (S7-1200) but one very similar, the Siemens S7-300.  

 

 

 

 

Stuxnet does little harm to computers and networks that do not meet specific configuration requirements; it makes itself inert if Siemens software is not found on infected computers, and contains safeguards to prevent each infected computer from spreading the worm to more than three others, and to erase itself on 24 June 2012.  It only attacks PLC systems with variable-frequency drives from two specific vendors: Vacon and Fararo Paya. Furthermore, it monitors the frequency of the attached motors, and only attacks systems that spin between 807 Hz and 1210 Hz. The industrial applications of motors with these parameters are diverse…

 

 

 

So, what was the purpose?

 

It is believed that Stuxnet almost ruined one-fifth of the Iranian nuclear centrifuge by spinning out of control while simultaneously replaying the recorded system values which shows the normal functioning centrifuge during the attack. The worm worked by first causing an infected Iranian IR-1 centrifuge to increase from its normal operating speed of 1,064 hertz to 1,410 hertz for 15 minutes before returning to its normal frequency. Twenty-seven days later, the worm went back into action, slowing the infected centrifuges down to a few hundred hertz for a full 50 minutes. The stresses from the excessive, then slower, speeds caused the aluminum centrifugal tubes to expand, often forcing parts of the centrifuges into sufficient contact with each other to destroy the machine!

 

 

 

Fortunately you are not learning to do this on our PLC units but PLC programming is truly interesting and has a wide range of applications…

 

If you want to learn more about Stuxnet go to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stuxnet.

 

 

 

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A fair dinkum wager you’d be hard pressed to lose

A fair dinkum wager you’d be hard pressed to lose

 

Do you and your mates like to take bets for fun?

What about asking them to guess what the mass (in kg) of air is pressing down on a single square metre (1m X 1m) of ground at sea level?

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